Laser technology has penetrated into people's life and various fields. Laser technology has brought huge benefits to people, and its application prospects are very broad. Laser technology is widely used in manufacturing, medical industry, communication industry, environmental monitoring, military, entertainment and other fields, and it is also an important field for the development of scientific and technological revolution countries. Laser processing technology uses the characteristics of the interaction between laser beam and matter to drill, weld and cut various materials. Compared with mechanical methods, laser processing is faster and of better quality, greatly improving work efficiency. In addition, unlike mechanical processing, laser processing can be clean and pollution-free.
Application of laser processing technology
1.Laser marking technology：
Laser marking is a marking method that uses a high-energy-density laser to locally irradiate the workpiece to vaporize the surface material or undergo a chemical reaction of color change, thereby leaving a permanent mark. Laser marking can print various characters, symbols and patterns, etc., and the character size can range from millimeters to microns, which has special significance for product anti-counterfeiting. The focused ultra-fine laser beam is like a knife, which can remove the material on the surface of the object point by point. Its advanced feature is that the marking process is non-contact processing, which does not generate mechanical extrusion or mechanical stress, so it will not damage the processed object; because After the laser is focused, the size is small, the heat-affected zone is small, and the processing is fine. Therefore, some processes that cannot be achieved by conventional methods can be completed.
What kind of information the laser can mark is only related to the content designed in the computer. As long as the drawing marking system designed in the computer can recognize it, the marking machine can accurately restore the design information on a suitable carrier. As long as the laser can work normally, laser marking machine manufacturers can process continuously for a long time. Laser processing is fast and low cost. Laser processing is automatically controlled by computer, and no human intervention is required during production.
2.Laser cutting technology：
Cutting is achieved by applying high power density energy generated by laser focusing. Under the control of the computer, the laser is discharged through the pulse, so as to output the controlled repetitive high-frequency pulse laser to form a beam with a certain frequency and a certain pulse width. The pulse laser beam is transmitted and reflected by the optical path and focused on the On the surface of the processed object, tiny, high-energy-density light spots are formed, and the focal spot is located near the surface to be processed, melting or vaporizing the processed material at an instantaneous high temperature. Each high-energy laser pulse instantly sputters a small hole on the surface of the object. Under the control of the computer, the laser processing head and the material to be processed perform continuous relative motion according to the pre-drawn graphics, so that the object will be processed. desired shape.
3.Laser welding technology：
Laser welding is one of the important aspects of the application of laser material processing technology. The welding process is a heat conduction type. By controlling parameters such as laser pulse width, energy, peak power and repetition frequency, the workpiece is melted to form a specific molten pool. Due to its unique advantages, it has been successfully applied to the welding of micro and small parts. The emergence of high-power CO2 and high-power YAG lasers has opened up a new field of laser welding. The deep welding based on the small hole effect has been obtained, and it has been increasingly widely used in industrial sectors such as machinery, automobiles, and steel. Compared with other welding techniques, the main advantages of laser welding are: fast laser welding speed, large depth and small deformation. It can be welded at room temperature or under special conditions, and the welding equipment is simple to install. For example, when the laser passes through the electromagnetic field, the beam will not deviate; the laser can be welded in air and certain gas environments, and can weld through glass or materials that are transparent to the beam. After the laser is focused, the power density is high. After the laser beam is focused, a small spot can be obtained, and it can be precisely positioned. It can be applied to the assembly and welding of micro and small components in mass automated production, such as integrated circuit leads, watch hairsprings, and picture tube electron guns. Laser welding not only has high and high production efficiency, but also has a small heat-affected zone and no pollution to the solder joints, which greatly improves the quality of welding.
It can weld inaccessible parts, implement non-contact long-distance welding, and has great flexibility. The use of optical fiber transmission technology in YAG laser technology has made laser welding technology more widely promoted and applied.
3.Laser cleaning technology：
Laser cleaning is to use the high-frequency vibration generated by a certain wavelength of laser to shatter the attachments on the surface of the object, and use the instantaneous high temperature generated by the laser to make the attachments peel off the surface of the substrate, so as to achieve the purpose of cleaning.
The object of laser cleaning includes the pollution layer, paint layer, rust layer, adhesion layer, etc. on the surface of any material. Its applications mainly include: mold cleaning, removal of metal surface paint and solder joints, removal of oxides, oil stains, restoration and preservation of historical relics and historic sites, etc.